http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1305716/Nobody-likes-gooder-Study-confirms-selfless-behaviour-alienating.html

They probably think their selfless behaviour makes them popular but the truth about 'do-gooders' is nobody really likes them, according to new research.

A series of studies found that those who volunteer to take on unwanted tasks or who hand out gifts without being prompted, quickly alienate themselves.

Psychologists believe this is because it makes the rest of us feel guilty and puts pressure on us to behave in an equally selfless fashion.

Researchers say do-gooders come to be resented because they 'raise the bar' for what is expected of everyone.

It suggests that people might want to think twice before waxing lyrical about their charity work or volunteering to put in extra hours at the office.

Social psychologist Professor Craig Parks said: 'The fear is that this new standard will make everyone else look bad.

'It doesn't matter that the overall welfare of the group is better served by someone's unselfish behaviour.

'What is objectively good, we see as subjectively bad.

'The do-gooders are also seen as deviant rule breakers. It's as if they're giving away Monopoly money so someone can stay in the game, irking other players no end.'

Professor Parks, of Washington State University, carried out a series of four tests with groups of people which showed that do-gooders got people's backs up.

In each case others reacted by wanting them thrown out of the group.

Prof Parks added: 'It's perhaps not hard to think of examples of this but we were the first to show this happens and have explanations for why.'

Parks led the research entitled 'The Desire to Expel Unselfish Members from the Group.'

During the research, participants were handed an allocation of points they could keep or give up for an immediate reward of meal service vouchers.

They were also told that giving up points would improve the group's chance of receiving a monetary reward to be shared between them.

Generally those within the group would make seemingly fair swaps of one point for each voucher.

However, in each group one was briefed to make lopsided exchanges - greedily giving up no points and taking a lot of vouchers or unselfishly giving up a lot of points and taking few vouchers.

As expected, most participants later said they would not want to work with the greedy colleague again.

But a majority of participants also said they would not want to work with the unselfish colleague again.

Prof Parks added: 'They frequently said 'the person is making me look bad' or is breaking the rules.

'Occasionally, they would suspect the person had ulterior motives.' Further research is planned to look at how do-gooders themselves react to being rejected.

While some may indeed have ulterior motives, Prof Parks said it's more likely they actually are working for the good of the wider group.

He speculated that, once excluded from the group, they may simply give up.

'But it's also possible,' he added, 'that they may actually try even harder.'

The research is published in the current Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.



研究:沒人喜歡好人
http://news.chinatimes.com/realtime/0,5255,110104x112010082501526,00.html

 好人可能會認為無私的行為會讓他們受歡迎,但新研究指出,實際情況是,沒有人喜歡好人。

 英國「每日郵報」(Daily Mail)報導,陸續有研究發現,自願去做大家不想做的事或是自願分發禮物的人,會馬上被人孤立。

 心理學家認為,這是因為這些行為會讓其他人有罪惡感,迫使大家要有同樣無私的行為。

 研究員說,好人會讓人討厭,因為他們提高了一般認定的行為標準。

 社會心理學家帕克(Craig Parks)教授說:「讓人害怕的是,這種新標準會讓其他人看起來都是壞人。」

 「這無關乎某人的無私行為是否會改善團體的整體利益。」

 「好人也被視是破壞常規的人,就好像他們玩大富翁遊戲,把錢送給別人繼續玩,折磨其他玩家苦無結局。」

 為美國「華盛頓州立大學」(Washington State University)教授的帕克,做了一系列實驗,證明好人不受其他人歡迎。

 「每日電訊報」(Daily Telegraph)報導,研究員把自願者分在不同組別,要他們做一些事情,像是拿點數換餐券等。

 他們被告知如果放棄餐卷,團隊得到獎金的機率就會更高,而獎金由隊員平分。

 有些人被告知要故意做出偏頗的行為,像是囤積餐券,顯現出自己很貪心,或是不拿平分的錢,表現出無私的樣子。

 最後,這些自願者都被問到團體的互動關係。

 不意外的,大部分的人說,他們不想再跟「貪心」的人合作。但大部分的人也不想跟團體中展現出不自私的成員合作。

 帕克說:「他們常說『這個人讓我看起來像壞人』或說『他破壞常規』。」

 「有時候,他們懷疑這個人意圖不軌。」(譯者:中央社張曉雯)990825

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